Clinical Manifestations
  • Oral leukoplakia is a white patch or plaque that cannot be rubbed off, cannot be characterized clinically or histologically as any other condition, and is not associated with any physical or chemical causative agent except tobacco. Therefore, a process of exclusion establishes the diagnosis of the disease. In general, the term leukoplakia implies only the clinical feature of a persistent, adherent white plaque; therefore, reserve the term for idiopathic lesions when investigations fail to reveal any cause. The term carries absolutely no histologic connotation, although, inevitably, some form of disturbance of the surface epithelium is characteristic.

    Follow-up studies suggest that cancer is more likely to occur in individuals with idiopathic leukoplakia than in individuals who do not have this condition. Thus, idiopathic leukoplakia is considered a premalignant lesion.

Treatment Principle
Herb Formulas
Clinical Manifestations
  • White patches on the oral mucosa which are stiff and hard with white borders
  • A relatively disease course
  • A bland taste in the mouth
  • No thirst
  • Cold body
  • Aversion to Cold
  • Cold extremities
  • Complexion white and shiny
  • Low back, knees and abdomen feel cold and painful
  • Lower abdomen feels cold and painful
  • Loose stools containing undigested food
  • “Cock-crow” diarrhea (occurs at about 5 am)
  • Edema of face and limbs
  • Dysuria
  • Severe:
    Abdominal ascites
  • T: Pale, moist and swollen
  • C: Thin and white or White and greasy
  • P: Deep, thready, weak and maybe slow
Treatment Principle
  • Warm and Reinforce Spleen and Kidney Yang
  • Scatter Cold
Herb Formulas
Clinical Manifestations
  • Dry white or sticky patches on the oral mucosa
  • Enduring disease which does not heal
  • Pale colored or mucosa
  • A sallow yellow facial complexion or
  • A Pale white facial complexion with flushed cheeks
  • Fatigue
  • Lack of strength
  • Maybe insomnia
  • Profuse dreams
  • Vexation
  • Agitation
  • Restlessness
  • Dry mouth with no desire to drink
  • Dry stools
  • T: Pale and enlarged with a possible red tip
  • C: White
  • P: Thready and forceless
Treatment Principle
  • Strengthen the Spleen
  • Tonify Qi
  • Nourish Yin
  • Generate Fluids
Herb Formulas
Clinical Manifestations
  • White patches on the oral mucosa which are lumpy and raised or whose surface is uneven and is hard and stiff
  • Possible pain and itching
  • Dry skin over the entire body
  • Abdominal fullness and distention
  • T: Dark
  • C: Thin
  • P: Wiry or Wiry and choppy
Treatment Principle
  • Invigorate the Blood
  • Move Qi
Herb Formulas
Clinical Manifestations
  • White patches on the oral mucosa with red margins, and are dirty, brownish or
  • Mixed-red and white patches
  • Maybe ulceration
  • Maybe burning pain
  • Dry mouth
  • Bitter taste in the mouth
  • T: Red
  • C: Greasy
  • P: Slippery and rapid
Treatment Principle
  • Clear Heat
  • Transform Dampness
Herb Formulas